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为抑制房产泡沫 预计2017年房地产投资增速为5%

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 匠心精神+互联网思维 助力传统门窗制造业升级 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

国网拟停止垫付光伏补贴 业界担心分布式投资热情降温

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

Extreme heat blanketed Alaska and much of the western United States last year. Records were set across large areas of every inhabited continent. And the ocean surface was unusually warm virtually everywhere except near Antarctica, the scientists said, providing the energy that fueled damaging Pacific storms.
因此,D型人格的人并不是缺乏社交兴趣,而是可能对别人感兴趣,但又害怕接近别人,因为他们害怕被拒绝。
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8. Julia Roberts - $12 million
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"This year's prize concerns a central economic problem: how to match different agents as well as possible," the academy said.
5) I take a gloomy view of things 0 1 2 3 4

The 2018 Academic Ranking of World Universities released last Wednesday by Shanghai Ranking Consultancy reveals that 62 research universities in China have made their list of the world's top 500 universities.
Students were then asked to move the dispenser to the teachers' office where teachers then called the police.
让爱情多姿多彩:荷兰培育出彩虹玫瑰(图)
我们只把精力在应该关注的地方
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Footnotes

  • 产能过剩是制约建材业发展的主要原因
  • 第10、11题,选0得4分,选1得3分,选2得2分,选3得1分,选4得0分。

The actor - who is heavily tipped for his first Oscar this year - won the gong for best actor in a film drama for his role in The Revenant, beating rivals including Eddie Redmayne who was nominated for The Danish Girl.
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vt. 切成薄片,削
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[pi'tr?uli?m]
‘The Good Wife’ Once Will (Josh Charles), Alicia’s illicit love interest, died at the end of Season 5, this sexy CBS courtroom drama seemed as if it might droop and wither, but instead, the sixth season steamed with almost madcap energy, mixing Alicia’s newly fledged political campaign, a war of the roses between Alicia’s new firm and her old one, and the legal travails of Cary, her legal partner. Alicia isn’t quite so good anymore, and that makes “The Good Wife” all the better.

天津:未出现企业抢占房源操纵市场价格现象

References

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